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Compared with silicon steel, iron-based amorphous alloy has the following advantages and disadvantages.
1) The saturation magnetic flux density Bs of iron-based amorphous alloy is lower than that of silicon steel
However, under the same Bm, the loss of Fe-based amorphous alloy is smaller than that of 0.23mm thick 3% silicon steel. It is generally believed that the reason for the small loss is the thin thickness of the iron-based amorphous alloy strip and the high resistivity. This is only one aspect. The main reason is that the iron-based amorphous alloy is amorphous, and the atomic arrangement is random. There is no magnetocrystalline anisotropy caused by the directional arrangement of atoms, and there is no crystal that produces local deformation and composition shift. grain boundaries. Therefore, the energy barrier that hinders domain wall motion and magnetic moment rotation is very small, and it has unprecedented soft magnetism, so it has high magnetic permeability, small coercive force, and low loss.
2) The filling factor of the iron-based amorphous alloy core is 0.84-0.86
3) Working magnetic flux density of iron-based amorphous alloy core
1.35T ~ 1.40T, silicon steel is 1.6T ~ 1.7T. The weight of the iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer is about 130% of the weight of the silicon steel power frequency transformer. However, even if the weight is heavy, for a power frequency transformer with the same capacity, the loss of the iron-based amorphous alloy core is 70% to 80% lower than that of silicon steel.
4) Taking loss into account, the total appraised value is 89%
Assume that the load loss (copper loss) of the power frequency transformer is the same, and the load rate is also 50%. Then, to make the iron loss of the silicon steel power frequency transformer the same as that of the iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer, the weight of the silicon steel transformer is 1 to 8 times that of the iron-based amorphous alloy transformer. Therefore, regardless of the loss level of the transformer, the general Chinese people agree that the weight, cost and price of the iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer are 130% to 150% of the silicon steel power frequency transformer, which does not meet the market requirements. The principle of performance-price ratio. Two methods of comparison have been proposed abroad. One is to calculate the weight and price of copper and iron materials used in two power frequency transformers under the same loss conditions, and compare them. Another method is to reduce the wattage of the loss of the iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer and convert it into currency for compensation. The no-load loss per watt is converted into US$5-11, which is equivalent to RMB 42-92. The load loss per watt is converted into USD 0.7-1.0, which is equivalent to RMB 6-8.3. For example, a silicon steel magnetic core for a 50Hz, 5kVA single-phase transformer is quoted at 1700 yuan/set; the no-load loss is 28W, calculated at 60 yuan/W, which is 1680 yuan; the load loss is 110W, calculated at 8 yuan/W, is 880 yuan; then, the total evaluation price is 4260 yuan/unit. The iron-based amorphous alloy magnetic core is quoted at 2,500 yuan/set; the no-load loss is 6W, which is converted into RMB 360; the load loss is 110W, which is converted into RMB 880, and the total evaluation price is 3,740 yuan/set. If the loss is not considered, the price is simply calculated, and the 5kVA iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer is 147% of the silicon steel power frequency transformer. If loss is taken into account, the overall appraised value is 89%.
5) The ability of iron-based amorphous alloy to resist power waveform distortion is stronger than that of silicon steel
Now testing the core material loss of power frequency power transformer is carried out under the sine wave voltage with distortion less than 2%. The actual power frequency grid distortion is 5%. In this case, the iron-based amorphous alloy loss increased to 106%, and the silicon steel loss increased to 123%. If the high-order harmonic is large and the distortion is 75% (such as power frequency rectifier transformer), the loss of iron-based amorphous alloy increases to 160%, and the loss of silicon steel increases to more than 300%. It shows that the ability of iron-based amorphous alloy to resist power waveform distortion is stronger than that of silicon steel.
6) The magnetostriction coefficient of iron-based amorphous alloy is large
It is 3 to 5 times that of silicon steel. Therefore, the noise of the iron-based amorphous alloy power frequency transformer is 120% of the noise of the silicon steel power frequency transformer, which is 3-5dB larger.
7) The price of iron-based amorphous alloy strip is 150% of that of 0.23mm3% oriented silicon steel
On the current market, it is about 40% of 0.15mm3% oriented silicon steel (after special treatment).
8) The annealing temperature of iron-based amorphous alloy is lower than that of silicon steel
The annealing temperature of iron-based amorphous alloy is lower than that of silicon steel, and the energy consumption is small, and the iron-based amorphous alloy magnetic core is generally manufactured by a special factory. Silicon steel cores are generally manufactured by transformer manufacturers. According to the above comparison, as long as a certain production scale is reached, iron-based amorphous alloys will replace part of the silicon steel market in electronic transformers within the power frequency range. In the mid-frequency range of 400Hz to 10kHz, even if new silicon steel varieties appear, iron-based amorphous alloys will still replace most of the silicon steel market with a thickness below 0.15mm.