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A Brief History and Application of Amorphous Alloys

by:Catech      2023-04-13

Amorphous alloys are solidified by ultra-rapid cooling. When the alloy is solidified, the atoms do not have time to arrange and crystallize in an orderly manner. The obtained solid alloy has a long-range disordered structure, and there are no grains and grain boundaries of the crystalline alloy. This amorphous alloy has many unique properties. Due to its excellent performance and simple process, it has become the focus of research and development in the field of material science at home and abroad since the 1980s. Iron-based amorphous alloy is composed of 80% Fe and 20% Si, B-type metal elements. It has a high saturation magnetic induction (1.54T), and its magnetic permeability, excitation current and iron loss are superior to silicon steel sheets. specialty. In particular, the iron loss is low (1/3-1/5 of oriented silicon steel sheet), and it can save 60-70% of energy by replacing silicon steel as a distribution transformer. The strip thickness of iron-based amorphous alloy is about 0.03mm. It is widely used in distribution transformers, high-power switching power supplies, pulse transformers, magnetic amplifiers, intermediate frequency transformers and inverter cores, and is suitable for frequencies below 10kHz. Due to ultra-rapid cooling and solidification, when the alloy is solidified, the atoms have no time to arrange and crystallize in an orderly manner. The obtained solid alloy has a long-range disordered structure, and there are no grains and grain boundaries of the crystalline alloy. It is called an amorphous alloy and is called a metallurgical material. A revolution in learning. This amorphous alloy has many unique properties, such as excellent magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, high strength, hardness and toughness, high electrical resistivity and electromechanical coupling performance, etc. Because of its excellent performance and simple process, it has become the focus of research and development in the field of material science at home and abroad since the 1980s. In the past thousands of years, the metals or alloys used by human beings are all crystalline materials, and their atoms are arranged in an orderly manner in the three-dimensional space to form a periodic lattice structure. Amorphous metal or alloy refers to a condensed state in which the liquid atoms are kept in a disordered arrangement at room temperature or low temperature due to the lack of time to crystallize when the substance is rapidly cooled from the liquid state (or gaseous state), and its atoms are no longer orderly, periodic and Arranged regularly, but in a state of long-range disordered arrangement. Amorphous gold alloys with ferromagnetism are also called ferromagnetic metallic glass or magnetic glass (Glassy Alloy). For the convenience of description, they are referred to as amorphous alloys hereinafter.

In 1960, Professor Duwez of the United States invented the use of rapid quenching technology to prepare amorphous alloys. Meanwhile, the development of amorphous soft magnetic alloys generally went through two stages: one stage started from 1967 until 1988. In 1984, four transformer manufacturers in the United States demonstrated practical amorphous distribution transformers at the IEEE conference, which marked the climax of the first stage. By 1989, AlliedSignal Company of the United States had an annual production capacity of 60,000 tons of amorphous strips. About 1 million amorphous distribution transformers have been put into operation, and almost all of the iron-based amorphous strips used come from this company. Since 1988, the development of amorphous materials has entered the second stage. The landmark event at this stage is the invention of iron-based nanocrystalline alloys. In 1988, Yashiwa et al. of Hitachi Metals Corporation of Japan developed nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy (Finemet) through crystallization treatment on the basis of amorphous alloy. In 1988, Hitachi Metals realized the industrialization of nanocrystalline alloys and launched products to the market. In 1992, the German VAC company began to introduce nanocrystalline alloys to replace cobalt-based amorphous alloys, especially in network interface equipment, such as ISDN, a large number of nanocrystalline magnetic cores were used to make interface transformers and digital filter devices.

After having a preliminary understanding of amorphous alloys, let's take a look at a very promising application field of amorphous alloys - amorphous transformers. Amorphous alloy iron core transformer is a transformer made of a new type of magnetically permeable material—amorphous alloy. Power loss) is reduced by about 75%, and the no-load current (when the transformer secondary is open circuit, the primary still has a certain current, this part of the current is called no-load current) is reduced by about 80%. It is a distribution transformer with an ideal energy-saving effect at present. It is especially suitable for places with low load rates such as rural power grids and developing regions. Since 2006, the price of silicon steel has risen sharply, making the price of amorphous steel even lower than that of silicon steel; at the same time, its energy-saving effect has also attracted much attention due to the emphasis on energy issues. Due to its lower loss rate, amorphous strip can play a very good role in reducing power consumption when used in new distribution transformers. As the Chinese transformer market accelerates the development of amorphous distribution transformers, amorphous strip The material market is constantly expanding. It is different from the traditional silicon steel sheet in that the amorphous alloy is fragile after stamping and it is difficult to form laminations. Therefore, in practical applications, amorphous alloys often exist in the form of a winding process. In recent years, there have been more and more motors using amorphous soft magnetic materials, and its excellent energy-saving performance with low iron loss has attracted widespread attention from the academic community.

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